Tuesday, March 6, 2012

Omicron 2012 Codility Programming Certificate Solution

Another month has passed and it is time to reveal how the Codility Certificate codenamed Omicron can be solved. You can still give it a try, but no certificate will be granted. If you want to obtain a Codility Certificate, a fresh new problem is awaiting you here.
In the Omicron certificate problem, the task was to compute \(Fib_{N^M} \mod\ 10,000,103\), where \(Fib_i\) is the \(i\)-th Fibonacci number. Fibonacci numbers grow exponentially quickly, so without performing calculations modulo 10,000,103, one would have to use arbitrarily large integers. Note that 10,000,103 is a prime number. Unsurprisingly, you may have seen this trick in various Codility tasks before; it simplifies computations. As long as we use only addition, subtraction and multiplication, it suffices to perform all the operations modulo 10,000,103, and there is no need to implement arithmetic for arbitrary large integers. Even division can be used, though its implementation is less straightforward.
So, we can operate on ``ordinary'' integers and avoid arithmetical overflows. But how quickly can we compute Fibonacci numbers? There is a closed analytic formula: \(Fib_i = \frac{\varphi^i - (1 - \varphi)^i}{\sqrt{5}}\), where \(\varphi\) is the golden ratio \(\varphi = \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\). Unfortunately, for \(i = N^M\), use of this formula is not feasible due to the limited precision of floating point operations.
The second fastest method of computing Fibonacci numbers is based on matrix multiplication and uses only operations on integers. It is based on the following equation, where \(F = \left(\begin{array}{@{}cc@{}}1 & 1 \\ 1 & 0\end{array}\right)\):
\( F \times \left(\begin{array}{@{}c@{}} Fib_n \\ Fib_{n-1} \end{array} \right) = \left(\begin{array}{@{}c@{}} Fib_{n+1} \\ Fib_n \end{array} \right) \)
\( F^k \times \left(\begin{array}{@{}c@{}} Fib_{n} \\ Fib_{n-1} \end{array}\right) = \left(\begin{array}{@{}c@{}}Fib_{n+k} \\ Fib_{n+k-1}\end{array}\right) \)
Taking \(n=1\), we obtain:
\( F^k \times \left(\begin{array}{@{}c@{}} 1 \\ 0 \end{array}\right) = \left(\begin{array}{@{}c@{}} Fib_{k+1} \\ Fib_k \end{array}\right) \)
Generally, one can prove by simple induction that:
\(F^k = \left(\begin{array}{@{}cc@{}} Fib_{k+1} & Fib_k \\ Fib_k & Fib_{k-1} \end{array}\right)\)
Powers of matrices can be computed in a similar way to powers of integers: by squaring and multiplication. Elements of \(A^k\) (modulo 10,000,103) can be computed in \(O(\log k)\) time. Here are procedures in Pascal to implement multiplication and exponentiation of \(2 \times 2\) matrices, modulo 10,000,103, and to compute Fibonacci numbers:
    P = 10000103;

     matrix = array[1..2, 1..2] of int64;
     F  : matrix = ((1, 1), (1, 0));
     id : matrix = ((1, 0), (0, 1));

  function mul(A, B : matrix) : matrix;
    C :  matrix;
     C[1,1] := (A[1,1] * B[1,1] + A[1,2] * B[2,1]) mod P;
     C[1,2] := (A[1,1] * B[1,2] + A[1,2] * B[2,2]) mod P; 
     C[2,1] := (A[2,1] * B[1,1] + A[2,2] * B[2,1]) mod P;
     C[2,2] := (A[2,1] * B[1,2] + A[2,2] * B[2,2]) mod P;
     mul := C

  function pow(A : matrix;  K : longint) :  matrix;
     if K = 0 then
        pow := id
     else if K mod 2 = 0 then
        pow := pow(mul(A,A), K div 2) 
        pow := mul(pow(A, K-1), A)

  function Fib(K :  longint) : longint;
     A : matrix;
     A := pow(F, K);
     Fib := A[1,2]
Unfortunately, such a solution doesn't work for larger values of \(N^M\). Even if we modified it to work for an arbitrarily large \(K=N^M\), it would be too slow. Computing \(F^{N^M}\) (modulo 10,000,103) requires \(O(\log (N^M)) = O(M \log N)\) time.
Use of modulo 10,000,103 not only simplifies arithmetical operations: for any \(P>0\), the sequence \((Fib_i \mod P)\) is periodic. It follows from the fact that values of \(Fib_i \mod P\) and \(Fib_{i+1} \mod P\) fully determine the following elements of this sequence, and there are at most \(P^2\) different pairs of such values. In particular, for \(P = 10,000,103\) the sequence \((Fib_i \mod P)\) has period \(Q = 20,000,208\). Its value can be established by the use of a simple program. Here is a function in Pascal that computes the period for a given \(P\):
function count_period(P : longint) : longint;
     a, b, c, i : longint;
     a := 1;
     b := 2;
     i := 1;
     while (a <> b) or (a <> 1) do begin
        c := (a+b) mod P;
        a := b;
        b := c;
     count_period := i
So, the task reduces to computing \((Fib_{N^M \mod Q}) \mod P\). Here is a procedure in Pascal that computes \(N^M \mod Q\):
function exp(N : int64; M : int64) : longint;
     if M = 0 then
        exp := 1
     else if M mod 2 = 0 then
        exp := exp((N*N) mod Q, M div 2)
        exp := (N*exp(N, M-1)) mod Q
Finally, here is a solution to this task:
function power_fib(N: longint; M : longint) : longint;
     power_fib := Fib(exp(N,M));


  1. I haven' actually tried it, but doesn't rising the matrix to the N'th power, and then to the K'th power work? Then You don't need to depend on the cyclic nature of the problem.

  2. No. (F^N)^K equals F^(NK), not F^(N^K).

  3. Thank you Codility.
    I have received your T-Shirt & Golden Certificate Omicron 2012.


  4. Does it really matter that 10,000,103 is a prime?
    Surely F(n) mod j (where j is any integer) is periodic, regardless of whether or not j is prime.

    1. It is true that it is not needed that j is a prime. However, if j is a prime greater than 5, then the period is at most 2j+2.